Buffalo Environmental Law Journal

First Page


Document Type



The current relationship of water, food, and energy is deeply entangled as it functions within different sectors, such as industry and agriculture, the latter of which water is essential for irrigating crops. Similarly, adequate water storage facilities are also required for hydroelectricity generation. Moreover, in many regions, electrical energy is used to operate tube wells for extracting groundwater to irrigate crops for food. Within the intricate nature of the mutual relationship of water, energy, and food, each plays its role in ensuring the security of the others. For instance, both energy security and food security are dependent upon water security, implying a central role of water security in the water–food–energy nexus. This Article will evaluate the mutual relationship of these three securities and the role played by international law in translating the strength of water security, energy security, and food security.